Chicago Style Format
Last updated on: Jun 2, 2023
By: John K.
10 min read
Reviewed By: Jacklyn H.
Published on: Oct 1, 2019
Improper formatting techniques affect the overall grade of your research paper or essay.
Professors sometimes instruct students to follow a specific format. It can be either an MLA or Chicago style. There are other citation styles also that assist the students in citing and referencing their work correctly and properly.
However, students find it challenging to meet these formatting techniques thoroughly. This blog is a guide to the updated edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, the 17th edition, and it will help you format your papers of literature history, general history, and arts properly.
Read this blog to get a detailed overview of the Chicago-style format paper.
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It is a style guide for American English that was first published in 1906 and covers:
The most recent edition was published in 2003 and was updated to show technological advancement. The Chicago style format is often used by the researchers to organize their work and citings. It is entirely different from other popular citation styles such as MLA and APA.
Usually, the MLA format is used by literature students and the APA is used by science writers. However, students in history and social sciences prefer to use the Chicago manual of style.
Most of the supervisors demand Chicago citation in Turabian. It is a widely used manual for writers and professional researchers. Kate Turabian is an instructor who developed a spin-off design for those who use it.
Turabian's format for referencing is the same as Chicago's. Nevertheless, the Turabian style handbook focuses more on the paper's layout and framework rather than a published piece.
Researchers have two different citation systems in Chicago format. The writers of research papers can choose between them on the basis of the discipline and source type. Let us discuss both in detail.
1. Notes and Bibliography Style
People working in humanities, history, literature, and arts mainly use this system. It is a flexible style that includes commentary on these cited sources. A superscript number is written at the end of the sentence, or the shortened citation, that indicates that the source is being used.
Moreover, summary details of the source are also present within the footnote at the bottom of the page. Lastly, full details are located in the bibliography presented at the end of your paper in alphabetical order. It explains how to arrange the citations both in the notes and bibliographies.
2. Author-Date System
This type of Chicago manual of style online is used in natural, social, and physical sciences. Such a method uses in-text citations and bibliographies to organize the Chicago referencing.
Similarly, it is further enclosed within parentheses. It includes the author (last name), publication date, page numbers, and full bibliographic information.
Worried about writing your paper in Chicago style? Follow the below-mentioned essential guidelines.
Furthermore, it includes the formatting of the following sections.
Let's discuss the detailed formatting of each section.
Mainly a Chicago style does not require a separate title page. It is only mentioned at the top of the first page. However, follow the guidelines given below if you are asked to include one.
Place the tables and figures after being referenced. Present it after the paragraph in which they are described.
Include a caption or short explanation for figures. Cite the table source with a credit line below the table or figure. Also, include complete information in your bibliography or reference page
If the table includes the data that is not acquired by the author, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by a word source, succeed by a colon, full source information, and end with a period.
Organize the document in the following order:
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Titles listed in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized. Similarly, the first words of the titles and subtitles should also be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. Use lowercase to classify periods.
Make sure to present each type of heading clearly. For example, use a
You can write quotations of two or more lines in your paper. It must be presented as block quotations. They do not use quotation marks.
Rather they are separated on both sides by a surrounding text and are intended to be 1?2 inch. Also, they are not double-spaced.
Chicago manual of style 17th edition recommends using words, not numerals. For example, it is thirty-five and not 35. If numbers are required in any case, they must be lower than 100. Moreover, they can also be used in a measurement like 14 cm or using decimals like 2.7.
On the other hand, acronyms can be used alone when you are referring to something. However, both should not be stated at the start of a sentence.
Rather, rewrite the statement, so both appear elsewhere or write the full phrase or number.
As previously discussed, there are two citation styles in Chicago, i.e., author-date and notes and bibliography
Similar to the APA format, Chicago's author-date style also has the flexibility to place the text in parentheses. Nevertheless, in notes and bibliography style, citations are mainly present in a footnote or endnote.
Endnotes are mentioned before the bibliography, but the footnotes appear at the bottom of each page.
Also, the Chicago-style footnotes must be separated from the text. However, it should be with the same font size. Microsoft Word's function automatically creates footnotes.
For footnotes, put the numbers at the end of the sentence within the text. Make sure to use Arabic numbers (1,2,3). Put the notes at the top of the page with the endnotes.
Use Times New Roman 10 pt font and single-line space. Intend the first line of each note.
A bibliography or a reference list is included at the end of your paper. It should not be double-spaced but has a blank link between entries. A ½ inch indent should apply to the first line if an entry extends in the second line.
The heading must be centered at the top of the page in Times New Roman 12 pt font. Don't use bold or large size fonts for the heading.
A writer should keep in mind the following points.
The following are the core elements of Chicago Citation formatting.
All the editions of The Chicago Manual of Style, either the 16th or 8th edition, require a bibliography at the end of the paper. Even though complete bibliographic information is mentioned in the footnotes or endnotes.
Turabian style referencing is almost the same as Chicago. Continue reading to understand more about writing a Turabian-style paper.
A book citation consists of the author's name, the book's title, publisher city and name, the year of publication, and the page range.
In the footnotes and endnotes:
First name, Last name, Title of Book (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.
In the bibliography:
Last name, First name. Title of the book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.
Dan Brown, The DaVinci Code (New York: Scholastic, 2004), 17-19.
A book written by two or more authors, list them in the same order as they appear on the title page. Only the first author's name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Also, separate author names by a comma.
A journal article consists of the author name(s), article title, journal name, volume number, date published, and page numbers.
For footnotes and endnotes:
First Name Last Name of Author, “Article Title,” Journal Name Volume Number, no. of the issue (Date published): Page-Range, DOI address.
Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume Number, no. of the issue (Date Published): Page-Range. DOI address.
Smith, John. “Studies in Pop Rocks and Coke.” Weird Science 12, no. 3 (Spring 2009): 78-93.
A website consists of the author name(s), page title, website title, web address, and date published or accessed.
For footnotes and endnotes:
First Name Last Name of Author, “Title of Page,” Title of Website, Month Day, date published or accessed, web address.
Last Name, First Name of Author. “Page Title.” Website Title. Month Day, Date published or accessed. Web address.
John Smith, “Obama Inaugurated as President,” CNN, accessed February 1, 2009,
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A newspaper consists of the author name(s), article title, newspaper name, publication date, and web address or name of the database.
For footnotes and endnotes:
First Name Last Name of Author, “Article Title,” Newspaper Name, Publication Date, web address, or name of the database.
Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Name, Publication Date. Web address or name of the database.
John Smith, “Steelers Win Super Bowl XLIII,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009
Citing the magazine by using the same structure to cite a newspaper. It consists of the author's name, the book's title, publisher city, publisher name, the year of publication, and the web address.
For footnotes and endnotes:
First Name Last Name of Author, “Article Title,” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year of Publication, web address.
Last Name, First Name of Author. “Article title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year of publication. Web address.
Dan Chan, “The Art of Pandas,” Panda Magazine, November 10, 1985
A film consists of the title, medium, director name(s), distributor, distributor city, and year of release.
For footnotes and endnotes:
Film Title, directed by First Name Last Name (Distributor City, St: Distributor, Year of Release), Medium.
Last Name, First. Film Title. Medium. Directed by First Name Last Name. Distributor City: Distributor, Year of Release.
BibMe: The Movie, directed by Jane Doe (Los Angeles: Columbia, 2001), DVD.
Here we have mentioned three Chicago-style format examples for better understanding.
This blog has provided you with everything to get started with the Chicago-style format. However, taking help from professional essay writers is a good option if you are still confused.
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No, they are different from each other, and once you go through the samples of each of these citation styles, you will know the core differences between them.
If we talk about ease, then APA is a better choice, but if you want to give additional details and information, the Chicago style will be better. Since it includes footnotes, it will allow you to provide more details.
Yes, like other papers, a Chicago-style paper is also double-spaced, unless the teacher has asked you to keep your paper single-spaced.
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John K. is a professional writer and author with many publications to his name. He has a Ph.D. in the field of management sciences, making him an expert on the subject matter. John is highly sought after for his insights and knowledge, and he regularly delivers keynote speeches and conducts workshops on various topics related to writing and publishing. He is also a regular contributor to various online publications.
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