Types of Research Methodology with Examples
Research is a systematic approach to gather and analyze data. It is a daunting task for many students. When you start a paper, the first thing you need to do is to plan the research process.
Are you stuck with your research and confused about the different types of research papers? Read the blog to know about the types of research design and learn which would be best for your paper.
What is Research?
Research is an analytical and methodological approach to find something new. It has a particular subject, and the entire research is based on answering questions related to it. It is important to acquire new and improved information about various matters and things.
Research is not exclusive to scientific subjects only, but non-scientific research subjects, theory-based, also benefit from them. This is why students from all fields of study write specific research papers for their degree requirements.
Moreover, a research project explains and analyzes the main topic. It is important to conduct a detailed analysis to write a strong research paper.
We all face several issues and go through numerous processes in our routine lives. Scientists work to find answers to those, and research is the key to it. They explain the causes behind them and find answers and solutions for them.
Research methods are of two main kinds, basic research and applied research. When conducting research, it is carried out by considering a set of rules, concepts, paradigms, and research design. Moreover, this research could either be quantitative or qualitative in nature.
Purpose of Research
Research is conducted keeping in mind the following things:
- What do businesses and organizations want to find out?
- What are the processes involved in the successful chasing of an idea?
- What are the major arguments required to be built around a concept?
- What is the evidence needed for people to believe in the concept?
Types of Research
The most commonly used research methods are given below.
Following is a detailed description of the types of research.
Fundamental and Basic Research Method
Basic research is an investigation of basic principles and reasons for the occurrence of a particular event, process, or phenomenon. It is also called theoretical research. Study or investigation of some natural phenomenon or relating to pure science are termed as basic research.
This type of research may sometimes not lead to immediate use or application. Moreover, it is also not concerned with solving any practical problems of immediate interest. But it is original or basic in character.
It provides a systematic and deep insight into the researched problem and facilitates the extraction of scientific and logical explanations. It helps build new frontiers of knowledge. The outcomes of basic research form the basis for applied research.
Similarly, basic or fundamental research is just what the name suggests. It is the most basic kind of research and is generally employed in non-scientific and theoretical subjects. Instead of aiming for immediate results, it focuses on solving a certain problem and providing its in-depth and thorough understanding.
It studies and examines the main research topic and provides its scientific and logical reasons and explanations.
The fundamental research forms the basis for applied research as it provides new information and more opportunities for further research. In simple and brief terms, basic research:
- Searches for generalized ideas and information
- Utilizes basic processes and sampling methods
- Explains the general reasons behind events and occurrences
- Research and extracts as much data as possible
- Talks and states in technical language and terminology
Applied research is beyond and more than just researching facts and finding opportunities for further research. It is experimental research and applies different types of concepts and theories to validate the answers proposed by the basic research.
Applied research complements the basic research and offers immediate solutions and answers to a certain issue or question. The case study method and experimental research are the parts of applied research.
Some key features of applied research are:
- It studies a certain issue or case with a specific aim
- It studies any variable or data that could make a difference
- It aims to propose any possible change
- It works to rectify the wrong facts
- It uses simple and common language
These main types of the research study are further divided into three main types:
1. Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is theory-based that analyzes the quality of the text, as mentioned in the name. It is based on descriptions and describes an issue by referring to previous studies, concepts, and ideas. Similarly, it further explains and investigates a certain question.
Qualitative research largely depends on the researcher's experience and the questions used in the process.
Types of qualitative research include the following methods:
- Focus groups
- One-to-one interview
- Ethnographic research
- Case study research
- Text analysis
Want to know more about qualitative research in detail? Follow the link to learn everything there is about qualitative research with its example.
2. Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is based on numbers. It is one of the two main types of research. Both quantitative and qualitative research has some core concepts and methodology.
The data collection and results are recorded and presented in numerical data, tables, and graphs. It is conclusive.
The results of quantitative research could be measured and replicated, which is not the case with qualitative research. It is mostly used in scientific and field research-based subjects.
Qualitative research used the below-given methods:
- Online surveys
Quantitative research involves more people, and more people means more data. With a huge quantity of data to analyze, more accurate results can be obtained.
Furthermore, both qualitative methods vs. quantitative research methods have always been in trend. People try to find the best option for their research. Knowing the major differences and similarities by comparing the qualitative vs. quantitative research method is useful in selecting the methodology.
3. Mixed Research
Mixed method research is a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research. Individually, both of these research have limitations. However, the mixed research model combines the best of both the research and gets more targeted results. It uses both statistical data and theoretical concepts to explain the research questions.
Exploratory research aims to examine and analyze a certain research question or topic in detail. The method may include exploring a new concept or phenomenon by studying relevant literature or having interviews with a focus group. It is based on identifying various issues and their reasons and ways to counteract them.
Have a look at the following examples of exploratory research:
- Discuss the impact of advertising on the sale of an entity.
- Explain the impact of health services in controlling diseases.
Just like a descriptive essay, descriptive research is also based on describing a certain event of the phenomenon. It is based on examining and studying the reasons and causes of the main research question.
It is mainly used to describe the behavior of a sample population. The major objectives of descriptive research are to describe, explain and validate the finding.
Refer to the below examples of descriptive research to get an idea.
- What are the consequences of living in a house with domestic abuse?
- Discuss the types of services provided by an organization.
This type of research is based on analyzing, evaluating, and investigating organizational and institutional methods. It examines it to see if it needs any improvement and optimize the methods for better and improved results.
Mostly, teachers and educators employ this kind of research to examine their teaching methods and educational techniques.
The idea is to create a simple application and repeat method. It will help organizations and educational institutions improve their system and teaching methodologies.
This type of research studies the various public issues and methods to solve them. It works to understand and inform the various public issues that would aid in proper decision-making.
It also helps in making useful policies and implementing the necessary change. In the case of adding an important point in time-sensitive matters, these policy-making techniques come handy.
Correlational research develops and explores the relationship between two or more elements of a specific thing. It is used to discover the interdependence among the different aspects of a situation. The examples of this type of research include:
- The impact of bonuses on the productivity of employees.
- Relationship between cardiac arrest and stressful life.
It explains the relationship between two aspects of a problem in terms of ‘how’ and ‘why.’ With the why aspect, it tries to understand the relationship between the major characteristics of an event, situation, or individual.
Here are some examples of explanatory research.
- Why do people adopt some specific habits?
- Why does a stressful life lead to different heart diseases?
This type of research involves collecting data at multiple points. It can take three different forms, including panel study, cohort study, and trend study.
Here, the panel study discusses the same sample, and the cohort study explains the subpopulation over time. In contrast, the trend study analyzes the characteristics of a population.
Cross-sectional studies are both descriptive and exploratory research. It is used to collect data from different individuals at a single point. Moreover, you observe variables without influencing them. Have a look at the following examples to understand better.
- A medical study examining the prevalence of cancer among a defined population.
- A survey to examine the current obesity levels in a population.
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