Types of Research - Research Methodology
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- 1. What is a Research?
- 2. What are the Types of Research?
1. What is a Research?
A research is an analytical and methodological approach to research and find something new. It has a particular subject and the entire research is based on it and on answering questions related to it. It is important to acquire new and improved information about various matters and things.
Research is not exclusive to scientific subjects only, non-scientific subjects, theory based, also benefit from them. This is why students from all fields of study write research papers for their degree requirements. A research paper explains and analyzes the main topic. It is important to conduct a detailed analysis in order to write a strong research paper.
We all face a number of issues and go through numerous processes in our routine lives. The scientists work to find answers to those and research is the key to it. They research the explanation and causes behind them and find answers and solutions for them.
Research methods are of two main kinds, basic research and applied research. When conducting research, it is carried out by considering a set of rules, concepts, paradigms and research design. Moreover, this research could either be quantitative or qualitative in nature.
1.1 Purpose of Research
A research is conducted with keeping in mind the following things:
- What do businesses and organizations want to find out?
- What are the processes involved in the successful chasing of an idea?
- What are the major arguments required to be built around a concept?
- What are the evidence needed for people to believe in the concept?
1.2 Characteristics of Research
Following are the main characteristics of good research:
- A systematic approach is required to be followed for accurate data collection.
- Research should be based on logical reasons. It involves both deductive and inductive reasoning.
- An in-depth analysis of data is a must.
- Research should create a path for new questions.
- One of the most important characteristics of research is accuracy.
2. What are the Types of Research?
Talking about the types of research, there are various kinds of research that are used for a number of different reasons. Some of the most commonly used research methods are below.
2.1 Fundamental and Basic Research Method
Basic research is an investigation on basic principles and reasons for occurrence of a particular event or process or phenomenon. It is also called theoretical research. Study or investigation of some natural phenomenon or relating to pure science are termed as basic research.
Basic research sometimes may not lead to immediate use or application. It is not concerned with solving any practical problems of immediate interest. But it is original or basic in character.
It provides a systematic and deep insight into the researched problem and facilitates extraction of scientific and logical explanation and conclusion on it. It helps build new frontiers of knowledge. The outcomes of basic research form the basis for many applied research.
A basic or fundamental research is just what the name suggests. It is the most basic kind of research and is generally employed in non-scientific and theoretical kind of subjects. Instead of aiming for immediate results, it focuses on solving a certain problem and providing its in-depth and thorough understanding.
It studies and examines the main research topic as a whole and provide its scientific and logical reasons and explanations.
The fundamental research forms the basis for applied research as it provides new information and provides more opportunities for further research. In simple and brief terms, basic research:
- Searches for generalized idea and information
- Utilizes basic processes and methods
- Explains the general reasons behind events and occurrences
- Research and extracts as much data as possible
- Talks and states in technical language and terminology
2.2 Applied Research
Applied research is beyond and more than just researching facts and finding opportunity for further research. It is an experimental research and applies different types of research, concepts and theories to validate the answers that were proposed by the basic research.
Applied research complements the basic research and offers immediate solution and answer to a certain issue or question. Case study method and experimental research are the parts of applied research.
Some key features of applied research are:
- It studies a certain issue or case with a specific aim
- It studies any variable, or data, that could make a difference
- It aims to propose any possible change
- It works to rectify the wrong facts
- It uses simple and common language
These main types of research is further divided into the following types:
2.2.1 Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is theory-based and it analyzes the quality of the text, as mentioned in the name. It is based on descriptions and it describes an issue by referring to previous studies, concepts, and ideas. It explains and investigates a certain question.
Qualitative research largely depends on the researcher's experience and the questions used in the process.
Qualitative research used the following methods:
- Focus groups
- One-to-one interview
- Ethnographic research
- Case study research
Want to know more about qualitative research in detail? Follow the link to learn everything there is about qualitative research with its example.
2.2.2 Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is based on numbers. It is one of the two main types of research, the other is qualitative research, and both quantitative and qualitative research has some core concepts and methodology. The data collection and results are recorded and presented in numerical data, tables, and graphs. It is conclusive.
The results of quantitative research could be measured and replicated, to some extent, which is not the case with qualitative research. It is mostly used in scientific and field research-based subjects.
Qualitative research used the following methods:
- Online surveys
Quantitative research involves more people and more people means more data. With a huge quantity of data to analyze, more accurate results can be obtained.
Qualitative methods vs. quantitative research methods has always been in trend. People try to find the best option for their research. Knowing the major differences and similarities by comparing the qualitative vs. quantitative method is useful in selecting the methodology.
2.2.3 Mixed Research
Mixed research is a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research. Individually, both of these research have limitations, however, the mixed research model combines the best of both the research and get more targeted results. It uses both the statistical data and theoretical concepts to detail and explain the research questions.
2.3 Exploratory Research
An exploratory research aims to examine and analyze a certain research question or topic in detail. The method may include exploring a new concept or phenomenon by studying relevant literature or having interviews of a focus group of people. It is based on identifying various issues and their reasons, and ways to counteract them.
2.4 Descriptive Research
Just like a descriptive essay, descriptive research is also based on describing a certain event of phenomenon. It is based on examining and studying the reasons and causes of the main research question.
It is mainly used to describe the behaviour of a sample population. The major objectives of descriptive research is to describe, explain and validate the finding.
2.5 Action Research
This type of research is based on analyzing, evaluating and investigating organizational and institutional methods. It examines it to see if it needs any improvement and optimize the methods for better and improved results.
Mostly, teachers and educators employ this kind of research for the self-examination of their teaching methods and educational techniques.
The idea is to create a simple to apply and repeat method that will help organizations and educational institutions to improve their system and teaching methodologies.
2.6 Policy-Oriented Research
This type of research studies the various public issues and methods to solve them. It works to understand and inform the various public issues and aspects that would aid in proper decision making. It also helps in making useful policies and implementing the necessary change. In casing of adding an important point in time sensitive matters, these policy making techniques come handy.
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