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Experimental Proposal Creatine

Background

In previous scholarly articles, research examined effects of creatine on muscle performance. During anaerobic exercise, creatine has provided elevated energy resources to muscle cells and neurons. Consumption methods include serum liquid, caplets, and capsules. Minimal research has explored the impact of creatine on measurable mental performance (Linga, Kritikosb, and Tipladyc, 2009).

One related study examined the effect of removing cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase from mice. Effects revealed sluggish erudition of spatial learning by reduced acclimatization. Such effects indicate a probable correlation between creatine, metabolism, and brain malleability. Amalgamation rates and efficiency of distribution to cortical neurons, determine creatine availability. Paucity in the creatine transporter or enzyme synthesis can result in neurological problems. Therefore, a correlation between creatine availability and brain energy homeostasis is assumed (Linga, Kritikosb, and Tipladyc, 2009).

Unclear is the probable impact of creatine on cognitive tasks necessitating high neural energy use. Another study assessed creatine supplementation on cognitive performance in the elderly population. Two participant groups were provided placebo for week one. During week two one group was provided 5 grams of creatine, four times daily. Cognitive exercises included observing arbitrary number generation, spatial reminiscence, and long-term recollection. Conclusive evidence revealed a positive correlation between creatine supplementation and elderly cognition improvement (McMorris et al., 2007).

Further, a study incorporating cross-over design, examined effects of creatine on intelligence and memory performance. Forty-five vegetarian subjects were provided creatine for six-weeks. Results revealed a positive association between intelligence and oral creatine supplementation. Measurable tasks included operative recollection (backward digit span) and aptitude (Raven’s Advance Progressive Metrics). This would indicate that brain energy capacity (BEC) has measurable influence on brain performance (Rae et. al, 2003).

Motivation

Based on referenced historical data including case studies, emergent patterns exist. A distinct relationship between creatine supplement and cognition is understood. Identified patterns reveal enhanced intelligence relative to operative recollection, aptitude, and spatial reminiscence. Further research will determine effects of creatine supplement on mental performance in academic milieu. As a student, significant interest exists in understanding creatine effect on GPA.

The study connects to previous research in expanding the traditional understanding of creatine use. Previously recognized primarily for anaerobic exercise use, expanded understanding reveals cognitive improvement. Test groups have evolved from mice to human participants. Although intelligence capacity has shown measurable improvements no specific objective has been pursued. For pragmatic application, operative recollection and special reminiscence must have a measurable objective. This study will challenge previous assumptions within an academic environment.

Hypothesis and Significance

A positive correlation could enhance academic performance both individually and collectively. Additionally, it could transform the medical supplemental industry, specifically in creatine production. The study hypothesis is that creatine supplement will enhance academic performance. The measurable time period is one college semester during the freshman year. The ultimate objective is to ascertain probable GPA improvement. Given the variance in academic programs and subjectivity of teacher grading, a universal academic tool is necessary. That tool is the SAT test, which is a capstone of cumulative information prior to college entrance.

Experiment Overview

The experiment will be accomplished using a crossover methodology design. A select group of 1000 students will be broken into two groups of 500. The observable period will be for one college semester divided into three periods of two months each. This crossover study will be considered a controlled experiment. All applicable doses of creatine supplement and placebo will be in increments of 5 grams.

  • Groups 1 and 2 will both receive placebos of 5 grams per day, during the first two months of the study. The primary difference being that Group 1 will be informed they are taking “brain enhancement supplements.” Group 2 will be provided with no study information. After the first two months both groups will be tested using the SAT academic test.
  • In the second two months Group 1 will actually receive 5 grams of creatine supplement orally. In contrast, Group 2 while taking 5 grams of placebo will think they’re taking “brain enhancement supplements.” After the second two months both groups will be tested using the SAT academic test. The second two months should reveal higher test scores in both groups. In Group 1 the anticipated improvement will be from the absorption of creatine. In Group 2 notable improvement should come from the perception of brain enhancement capsules.
  • In the third set of two months both groups will be given placebo. The primary difference will be that Group 1 will digest 10 grams of creatine per day. In contrast Group 2 will only receive 5 grams of creatine. This will provide data relative to creatine volume and associated academic improvement. Anticipated results are that both groups should show notable improvement.

Expected Results

Expected results are that in both groups creatine supplement will reveal advanced academic scores. In Group 1 the expectation is that there should be a significant uptick in academic performance. It will be interesting analyzing disparities between perceptions of brain enhancement capsules, versus administration. In Group 2 the expectation is that the academic performance will be more gradual. At the end of the third two month period (semester) both groups should show improvement.

One outlier variable is the impact on natural aptitude on academic performance. Within both groups it is anticipated that there will be naturally intelligent students. As such these students may perform equally well with or without creatine supplement. For example a student may score 1600 (the highest score) on an SAT pre-creatine. In this instance the outliers will be eliminated from the final test results. This will ensure greater authenticity of the final test result outcome. The assumption will be higher SAT scores should equate to relatively higher GPA’s.

References

Caroline Rae, Alison L. Digney, Sally R. McEwan and Timothy C. Bates. (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. The Royal Society. 270 (1), 2147–2150.

Jonathan Linga, Minos Kritikosb and Brian Tipladyc. (2009). Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation. Pharmacology. 20 (1), 673-679.

TERRY MCMORRIS, GREGORSZ MIELCARZ, ROGER C. HARRIS, JONATHAN P. SWAIN, AND ALAN HOWARD . (2007). Creatine Supplementation and Cognitive Performance in Elderly Individuals. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition. 14 (1), 517–528.

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